Prosecutors asked the Supreme Court to keep Adeeb in custody.
The hearing was the first to be broadcast live on television.
Bank officials sought to shift blame to the anti-money laundering watchdog.
The Attorney General's office backed a tobacco importer's claim in a tariff dispute.
The former chief of staff at the presidential residence was arrested on his return to the Maldives.
The sum of money stolen from public coffers was higher than estimated in a February 2016 audit.
New evidence was uncovered by the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP).